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Monday, 9 November 2009

documents relating to Mainit


Article removed by Martin:
2. Mainit Folks Drive Away Mining Firm

Regional News filipin3.htmfilipin3.htm../yoeng/yoeng.htm../yoeng/yoeng.htm../indiceng/indiceng.htm../indiceng/indiceng.htm Mainit Folks Drive Away Mining Firm On June 14, 1999, residents of barangay Mainit in Bontoc, Mtn. Province displayed their defiance against destructive mining operations in the area by driving away representatives of Mainit Resources International Inc. (MRII) who were planning to conduct mining explorations within the territory of the village. MRII is a a Baguio-based firm wanting to explore, utilize and develop natural resources particularly mineral, forest and geothermal potentials in Mountain Province. A team of geologists from MRII were caught by enraged vilagers taking rock samples within the vicinity of Mainit prompting the residents to confiscate their equipment and other mining paraphernalia. These were later brought to the local Philippine National Police station in Bontoc. The geologists, identified only as Canadian nationals, together with some local residents who are members of the Heirs of Lomasok, Chinalpan, Kilayon and Kabattang Mining Association, reached Mainit by passing through the adjacent barangay of Maligcong. Upon entering barangay Mainit, the group reportedly introduced themselves to the Mainit folk as members of Youth With a Mission (YWAM), a fundamentalist religious group. Earlier reports said Maligcong residents who are also strongly opposed to the entry of big mining corporations, had seen three geologists, two Canadian and a Filipino, taking rock samples within the vicinity of their barangay. These geologists were also accompanied by some local residents while roving the village. Convinced that these geologists are connected with mining companies, the villagers forcibly drove them out of Maligcong. Apparently, this happened immediately before the Mainit incident. The MRII's mining application in Bontoc covers a total land area of 970 hectares. Of this, 48 has. is being claimed by the Kabattang clan in Mainit for Certificate of Ancestral Domain Title (CADT) application. Mainit residents claim that some members of the Kabattang clan signed a Memorandum of Aggreement (MOA) with the MRII which contained a provision that the latter shall take on the processing of the clan's application for a CADT. These individuals were also promised P300,000 as payment for the said land. Other members of the clan however are reportedly against the MOA and the MRRI's plan to mine in their territory. Three of the local residents who accompanied the geologists were identified as William Cawed and Ben Kilayon. Sources said they were among the few pro-mining individuals who were either coopted or deceived by the MRII. "Bribery is the common tactic of these mining companies to cause disunity among the people and to enable them to enter communities strongly opposed to mining" sources said. Earlier, Mountain Province Gov. Leonard Mayaen received reports that some foreigners went to Mainit to convince the residents to allow their firms to mine in the area. Gov. Mayaen said the mining firms' representatives promised the villagers money, jobs and other incentives once the companies are allowed to operate. In a related development, NPA guerillas launched an ambush against the 3rd Special Forces Batallion of the Philippine Army operating within the boundaries of barangay Mainit and the province of Abra on July 21. Reports said five soldiers were killed and three were wounded as a result of the incident. The NPA rebels, on the other hand, reported no casualties. The military troops were said to be conducting foot patrol in response to the reported NPA sightings in the area. Mainit residents, however, believe that the military operation has something to do with the June 14 incident where they had driven out MRII's representatives. This stems from the residents' strong notion that the presence of the Army and the PNP is related to the proposed mining activities in the area.#


3. Mainit on the radar - Geothermal Potential of the Cordillera Region, Philippines

It might be best to view this online: Proceedings World Geothermal Congress 2005 Antalya, Turkey, 24-29 April 2005 1 Geothermal Potential of the Cordillera Region, Philippines Michael S. Pastor, Rogelio A. del Rosario, Jr. and Ramon F. Papasin Geothermal and Coal Resources Development Division, Energy Resource Development Bureau, Department of Energy, Energy Center, Merritt Road, Fort Bonifacio, Taguig, M. M., Philippines,, Keywords: Cordillera, resource potential ABSTRACT Geothermal remains one of the most promising potential of energy source in the Philippines as it ranks second to the United States of America in installed geothermal electric capacity. Its favorable tectonic setting being situated in the Pacific “ring of fire” has endowed her with a large number of geothermal areas widely distributed throughout the country. The Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR) in Northern Luzon is considered as one of the potential areas for future geothermal development. It has vast resources of indigenous energy that includes geothermal energy, which can be tapped for power and/or non-power applications. Based on the Philippine Energy Plan for 2004-2013, the Region possesses the highest estimated geothermal resource potential in the island of Luzon. Identified geothermal areas with potential for development in CAR include Daklan and Buguias in Benguet, Batong Buhay in Kalinga, Tinoc in Ifugao, and Mainit in Mountain Province. These areas belong to the Luzon Central Cordillera Volcanic Belt consisting of non-active volcanoes hosting several geothermal resources. Except for Daklan, exploration of these areas has not been completed in detail. Further exploration of these prospect areas is recommended to define precisely their resource potential. 1. INTRODUCTION Geothermal remains to be the most promising potential of energy source, as the Philippines ranks second as a user of geothermal energy for power generation, surpassed only by the United States. Presently, the total geothermal power generating capacity is 1931 MWe accounting for 15% of the total installed generating capacity nationwide. The Cordillera Region is considered as one of the potential areas for future geothermal development. Identified geothermal areas in CAR include Daklan and Buguias in Benguet, Batong-Buhay in Kalinga, and Mainit in Mountain Province. Based on the PEP for 2004-2013, a maximum total of 590 MWe geothermal energy potential estimates are available in the Region. This paper summarizes the geothermal potential of the Region based on previous and recent studies made by the Philippine Department of Energy (PDOE) and other private companies. The purpose of which is to assess what works still need to be done in the area and also serve as an investment package for interested potential investors. 1.1 Location and Boundaries The Cordillera Administrative Region is prinicipally composed of the provinces of Abra, Benguet, Ifugao, Mountain Province, Kalinga and Apayao. The Region is landlocked as shown in Figure 1. It is bounded in the North by the Provinces of Ilocos Norte and Cagayan; the South by the Provinces of Nueva Vizacaya and Ecija; the East by the Provinces of Isabela and Cagayan; and the West by the Provinces of Pangasinan, La Union and Ilocos Sur. CAGAYAN Tuguegarao KALINGA APAYAO ISABELA Ilagan ABRA Bangued ILOCOS SUR BENGUET NUEVA VIZCAYA QUIRINO Bontoc MT. PROVINCE Lagawe IFUGAO Bayombong Cabarroguis AURORA Baler NUEVA ECIJA Cabanatuan BULACAN Malolos Polillo Is. LAMON BAY RIZAL QUEZON PAMPANGA TARLAC Tarlac San Fernando ZAMBALES Iba Lingayen Gulf Baguio City PANGASINAN Lingayen 120 ILOCOS NORTE Laoag Vigan BABUYAN CHANNEL BALER BAY 16 Kabugao Tabuk BATAAN Balanga MANILA 18 122 50 10 30 20 10 0 50 100 KILOMETERS LOCATION MAP N PROVINCIAL CAPITAL San Fernando LA UNION MANILA BAY Figure 1: Location Map of Cordillera 1.2 Climate and Vegetation Most of the moderately elevated to low areas are moderately vegetated. The high-elevated areas are covered by thick vegetation. The region’s climate generally falls under Type III and IV, which are characterized by a pronounced dry and wet season. Relatively dry season occurs from November to April while the remaining months are wet with the heaviest downpour observed during the months of August and September. 1.3Topography and Drainage Dubbed as the "Watershed Cradle of the Philippines", the Cordillera has a mountainous topography characterized by towering peaks, plateaus and intermittent patches of valleys. The complexity of the overall topography of the area resulted from a combination of intermittent uplifts and Pastor et al. 2 erosion which started during the Miocene and continued to Pliocene and Quaternary times The Region is drained mainly by Abra River in Abra, Agno and Bued Rivers in Benguet and Baguio City, Magat River in Ifugao and Apayao, Chico and Pamplona Rivers in Kalinga-Apayao and the Chico and Abra Rivers in Mt. Province. The down cutting and dissecting action of these rivers and their tributaries contributed to the generally steep topographic relief of the area. The result is a vigorous and rugged terrain where deeply incised valleys, steep river gradients and steep slopes. 2. REGIONAL GEOLOGY Luzon Cordillera is a north south trending geanticlinal mountain chain in the northern part of Luzon. This mountain chain resulted primarily from a Miocene orogenic event accentuated physiographically by a much later Plio- Pleistocene orogeny and tectonism (Pulanco, 1971). The arcuate island of Luzon lies between the Manila Trench and the Philippine Trench, a two oppositely dipping subduction zones responsible for the orogenic and tectonic development of the Central Cordillera since Miocene time. The Central Cordillera is cut by the northern branch of the Philippine Fault which split into four main branches (Ringenbach et al, 1990) shown in Figure 2. These are the Tebbo Fault, the Tuba Fault, the Pugo Fault, and the Dalton Fault. VIGAN SOUTH CHINA SEA LAOAG Cagayan Basin Central Valley Basin Philippine Fault San Juan Fault BUTAC Lingayen Gulf Dalton Fault Vigan-Aggao Fault North Cordillera Fault BAGUIO CITY Pugo Fault Tuba Fault Tebbo Fault Abra River Fault SOLSONA Intrusives Recent Basin Deposits Strike-Slip Faults Thrust Faults - visible on seismic profiles 20 km Coastal Thrust Hapao Fault N Figure2:Regional Geology (Adapted from Ringenbach, 1990) The oldest rocks in the region are the undifferentiated metamorphic rocks which are considered part of the Pre- Jurassic Philippine Basement Complex. Overlying this are the more widespread, undifferentiated, partly metamorphosed Cretaceous to Paleogene, ophiolitic volcanic flows with locally intercalated chert, marble and clastic sedimentary rocks. Bordering these rocks are folded Neogene volcaniclastics and sedimentary rocks. Masses of Late Miocene diorite-granodiorite plutons, elongated along the north-south direction, dominate the core of the Cordillera as shown in Figure 2. These plutons discordantly intruded the above rock sequences and are responsible for some ore mineralization in the region. The known geothermal areas in the region associated with Quaternary volcanism are Batong-Buhay in Kalinga, Mainit in Bontoc, and Daklan, Buguias, Itogon in Benguet. 3. DISTRIBUTION OF GEOTHERMAL AREAS The Philippine archipelago is a complex assemblage of island arcs, which has been accreting between two opposing major tectonic plates – the Eurasian and the Philippine Sea Plate. The subduction zones have generated a discontinuous belt of Pliocene to Quaternary volcanoes which extends throughout the length of the Philippines, from Northern Luzon to Southern Mindanao. Many authors, through years of Philippine geothermal energy exploration, development and production agree that the present geothermal systems are related to volcanism, plutonism and tectonism. According to Datuin and Troncales (1987), many of the potential geothermal resource areas in the Philippines are related to young volcanoes; along Philippine Shear System or its nearby branch faults and some are localized along the fringes of large intra-Miocene silicic batholiths. Geothermal areas in CAR which include Acupan, Daklan, and Buguias in Benguet, Batong Buhay in Kalinga, Tinoc in Ifugao, and Mainit in Mountain Province belong to the Luzon Central Cordillera Volcanic Belt. This belt consists of heavy concentrations of active and non-active volcanoes. Most of the potential geothermal prospects in CAR are related to the Plio-Quaternary volcanic centers of andesite to dacite composition which are related and connected to the North Cordillera Quartz Diorite Complex straddling the central region of Northern Luzon. 4. DESCRIPTION OF PROSPECT AREAS Hot springs abound in the Cordillera Region. Several of these thermal areas possess the potential for geothermal development. Location of the different thermal areas in the Region is shown in Figure 3. 4.1 Abra Several thermal areas were identified in the province. They are located in the Municipalities of Pilar, Danglas, Boliney, Sal-lapadan, Bucloc and Tubo. Thermal manifestation consists essentially of warm to hot springs occurring along fractures. The springs have discharge temperatures ranging from 38 - 67 oC and of neutral pH. The more impressive of which is in Boliney, Sal-lapadan and Tubo with measured temperatures of >50 oC. The rest are warm seepages with measured temperatures of <50>